The St. Alexius Church at Tsarskoye Selo. Alexei Shchusev’s “Unknown” Project

Sergei Koluzakov

Article: 
HERITAGE
Magazine issue: 
#1 2016 (50)

In the years preceding the revolution, Alexei Shchusev worked predominantly on church architecture and made a name for himself as a professional in that field. In 1901, he was assigned, “as an addition to the existing staff”, to the office of the Holy Synod’s Attorney General. However, by 1910 Shchusev had already become a member of the Imperial Academy of Arts “in recognition of his artistic reputation”.1 After the 1917 revolution, the artist accepted the new government and wrote his own chapter in the history of Russian architecture, creating many outstanding monuments.

These include that excellent model of memorial art and symbol of the Soviet era, Lenin’s Mausoleum. For obvious reasons, in the Soviet period nobody advertised or thoroughly researched Shchusev’s previous work for the Russian Orthodox Church, which is why today many specialists are unaware of many of the architect’s religious projects. Among them was one that played a prominent part in Shchusev’s career: the Church of St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow, of His Majesty’s 1st Rifle Regiment at Tsarskoye Selo. Emperor Nicholas II himself supervised the project2, and Nicholas Roerich was appointed to decorate the church.

In 1861, His Majesty's 1st Rifle Battalion of the Imperial Guard was transferred from St. Petersburg to Sofia, a military suburb of Tsarskoye Selo; in 1910, the battalion was expanded to become his Majesty's 1st Rifle Regiment of the Imperial Guard. April 17 was the day of the regiment's patron saints, Zosima and Sabbatius of Solovki, and also the birthday of the regiment's first colonel commandant, Emperor Alexander II. Afterwards, the colonelcy passed to Alexander III and upon his death in 1894 to Nicholas II. enjoying the emperor's favour, the Rifle Regiment received special privileges and in 1904, the heir to the throne, Tsarevich Alexei, joined its ranks.

Oleg Pantyukhov, a witness to that event, mentioned in his memoirs part of the preliminary story of the commissioning of the St. Alexius church project to Shchusev3: "When the emperor visited our regiment for the first time in 1901... Our officers' club had to use a very modest barrack, built of logs and planks, near the executive office... Some 40 steps away from the club's building, at the corner of the Pavlovsk road, there was a long barrack... Three-quarters of the barrack with its earthen floor was used for an equestrian ring, and one quarter was occupied by our regiment's chapel... All the battalion's quarters appeared very humble; to us, however, it did not undermine the high standing and, so to say, reputation of our famous regiment. Nevertheless, when the Emperor made the rounds of our battalion, I believe he kept in mind both the unassuming officers' club and the chapel which, of course, he visited and where we kept the regimental honours of our founder, Emperor Alexander II, on a special glass-covered desk-display. Thus, many years later - I think, in 1909 - an excellent building for the regiment officers' club was constructed on a plot of land near the Malinovsky summer residence, with a gate leading to the magnificent Soyedinitelny Park... After the officers' club had been built, the construction of a new chapel for the regiment was brought up as an issue. Probably, the Emperor or the Empress had suggested or just ordered that... Furthermore, the Empress had chosen an architect - Shchusev, a member of the Imperial Academy of Arts, who designed a marvellous church, and the choice of the Empress received the Emperor's approval."4 However, no researcher has been able to find any documented evidence to support the theory that it was indeed Empress Alexandra's choice of architect. Nicholas Roerich, Shchusev's friend and associate, recommended him to the initiators of the church construction project.

The artists had known each other since their student days at the Imperial Academy of Arts and had often worked together. In 1906, Shchusev invited Roerich to participate in the decoration of the Holy Trinity Church at the Svyato-Uspensky Pochaevsky Monastery, but due to its difficult financial situation, the order was reduced to a single mosaic on the south doorway: "The Saviour Not Made by Human Hands and the Holy Princes" (the final sketch is dated 1908). In 1912, the architect invited Roerich to work on several of his projects at the same time: a mosaic sketch for Arkhip Kuinji's tomb in St. Petersburg (completed in 1913); sketches of murals for St. Anastasia's Chapel in Pskov (completed in 1913); and two panel paintings in the hall of the Kazan Railway Station in Moscow (the work on those paintings continued until 1916). Helping Shchusev to receive the order for the Tsarskoye Selo church, Roerich in turn hoped that they would be able to work together on a large-scale religious project, a chance they had missed at Pochaev. On May 6 1913, he sent a telegram to Shchusev who had recently moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow to work on the construction of the Kazan Railway Station: "Please confirm by telegram that you consent in principle [to] participate in the construction of the Rifle Regiment's church [in] Tsarskoye Selo as we discussed. They are fine people, and they will provide good conditions to implement the project which you may supervise. I will be very happy if you accept the offer. We will work together. Roerich."5 Shchusev replied immediately and in a few days he officially received an order from "the Committee under the Imperial aegis to build the church for His Majesty's 1st Rifle Regiment of the Imperial Guard", with a list of comprehensive instructions that, to a large extent, defined the type of building:

Dear Alexei Viktorovich!

Having met on April 29 [of] [this year], the Committee decided to offer you to prepare a lay-out of the new regiment's church and, once the Committee's Sovereign Patron approves it, to develop the design and to supervise the construction of the said church.

I know that you already gave your consent in principle in the telegram dated May 7, addressed to N. Roerich, therefore I would ask you to kindly inform us on what conditions you would agree to undertake this work.

According to the attached copy of the regimental order dated March 13 [of] [this year], the church to be built is dedicated to St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow, All-Russia Miracle-worker, the Heir's patron saint, to commemorate the recovery of His Imperial Highness the August Rifleman, member of our regiment.

The church construction will be financed from funds donated by the regiment's Sovereign Colonel Commandant, the Emperor, as well as by the regiment officers, enlisted men, private individuals and also from percentage deductions of grade ranks.

For your information, I am sending you an excerpt from the Committee's register, approved by the Emperor:
It has been decided: 1) The church has to be built of stone;
2) In the old Russian, Novgorod-Pskov style;
3) All expenses have to be calculated (including the cost of construction, decoration, the full interior equipment of the church, of the sacristy, etc), and the budget fixed at 200,000-250,000 rubles;
4) The church's capacity to be set at 1,000 persons;
5) In the main church building dedicated to St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow, All-Russia Miracle-worker, to construct chapel(s) (either one or two) dedicated to SS. Zosima and Sabbatius of Solovki whose memorial date is celebrated as a regimental feast, and to SS. Peter and Paul, the Apostles, to whom the present regimental chapel is dedicated;
6) The land plot at the corner of the Pavlovsk road and Artillery street that presently accommodates the regimental chapel (which is to be demolished) has been chosen as the construction site.

I am happy to notify you as well that I reported to His Imperial Majesty the Committee's decision to seek your assistance in respect of the new church construction, and the Emperor gladly endorsed and approved that decision in addition to the above-mentioned paragraphs from the Committee's register. He was also pleased by the fact that, as we hope, you are ready to undertake this work. At that, His Majesty recalled your other works, including the restoration of the church at Ovruch.

Please accept my highest respect and devotion. Chairman of the Committee, Commander of His Majesty's 1st Rifle Regiment of the I[mperial] G[uard], of His Majesty's court, Major General

Sincerely yours, P Nikolayev."6

Shchusev immediately notified Roerich: "Dear Nikolai Konstantinovich!... I inform you that I received a nice letter from the Rifles and replied to them appropriately. I will be in Petersburg] after the 10th, and I will visit them.”7 The artist visited Tsarskoye Selo and inspected the chosen construction site located on the south-east border of Sofia, a historical area. After this visit and probably while still on the site, Shchusev made his first sketches of the church. The earliest of them represented a church with four internal piers and a single, rather large helmet-shaped dome; galleries and chapels were located around the church's perimeter. Pilaster-strips divided the walls into three parts with semi-circular tops and an arcaded frieze. It is remarkable that even in those sketches the architect "mixed” the required Novgorod-Pskov style with that of Vladimir-Suzdal. It may be suggested that the very image of St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow, to whom the church would be dedicated, was in the artist's mind associated with the Vladimir-Suzdal school, which significantly influenced the architecture of the early Moscow period.

In addition, Shchusev was not satisfied with the choice of the construction site, located within the military unit's quarters. Obviously, some preliminary agreements were achieved, as the architect made his further sketches taking into consideration a new site - in the immediate vicinity of the 1st Rifle Regiment, but on the other side of the Pavlovsk road, at the intersection with Deminers street. That part of the park, with its birch wood, was located just between the new officers' club building and the so-called Malinovsky residence that housed the regiment officers' apartments.

As Shchusev continued working on the sketches, the Vladimir-Suzdal style finally prevailed over that of Novgorod-Pskov. Some influence of the Pskov school could be noticed only in the shape of the bell tower, with the accent made on its south fagade facing the road. The architect continued to develop and refine the designed church's most remarkable, individual and recognizable features. He increased the number of domes and apses to three: the two small domes, which lit the altar, were positioned behind the main dome, with a fourth part added to the north and south fagades, thus creating a distinctive asymmetrical structure. Shchusev himself explained his architectural decision very expressively: "Riflemen went to battle in threes.”8 Here, just as in his design for the memorial church of St. Sergius of Radonezh at the Kulikovo Field (1902-1916), the symbolism behind the architectural decision was based on the idea of the Russian army.

Late in 1913, Shchusev finished working on the draft design and sent his drawings to Tsarskoye Selo for approval. He later wrote to Roerich: "I had two days [since] 23 [December] in P[eterburg]... wanted to ask you to look at my design at the Rifles, it was there.”9 The draft design showed the appearance, almost final, of the building. The western fagade was rid of the encircling gallery, and its central part stood out due to its multi-figure stone-carving work and remarkably protruding narthex. The arcaded frieze from the earlier sketches was enlarged, and life-size statues of saints were placed between its uprights. On the north side, a domed side-chapel appeared, as well as a small structure that housed stairs leading to the choir loft. With regard to the interior space, its construction solution employed the supporting structure weight de-loading system, identical to that used for another of Shchusev's projects, the Pokrovsky Church at the Marfo-Mariinsky (Mary and Martha) Convent (1907-1912, 1914), where only two pillars on the west side supported the central dome drum, and strong longitudinal and transverse arches compensated for the missing support structures, redistributing the load on the walls. The iconostasis of the St. Alexius Church was designed to be high, of five tiers, and it would cover the apses' conches almost completely.

Most likely, to resolve the church's location problem, Shchusev requested help from Prince Mikhail Putyatin10, head of the Court Administration, and Roerich played the role of mediator. In January 1914, Putyatin petitioned for the Emperor's approval of the new site, stating that "the church, located there, would truly adorn Tsarskoye Selo”.11 Shchusev's other drawings that may be parts of the same concept design definitely confirm such a suggestion. One of them, a developed view from the Pavlovsk road, juxtaposes the church surrounded with birch trees and the neighbouring officers' club that Shchusev also planned to expand and renovate. Another drawing, with a view from the north fagade, shows a variety of new regimental buildings with porticos and colonnades. The buildings' neo-classical style encased and favourably set off the architecture of the church, falling completely in line with it. The new architectural complex, preceded by the St. Alexius Church, would be a part of a complex town-planning programme implemented at Tsarskoye Selo which at the time was going through serious changes. Thus, to the north of the city's historic city centre where the road to St. Petersburg began, a great complex in a new Russian style was being built around the Fyodorovsky Imperial Cathedral (1910-1912) designed by Vladimir Pokrovsky. Thus, Shchusev's project appeared to offset it from the south, marking the road to Pavlovsk. Late in January, the commander of the 1st Rifle Regiment notified Shchusev that his project had been reviewed.

"Dear Alexei Viktorovich!

On January 28, His Majesty finally chose the land plot with birch wood along the Pavlovsk road, located between the officers' residence and the officers' club, to be the site on which the new regimental church would be built. On January 27, the Emperor informed the Committee that he approved the sketch you had submitted, and desired to lay the foundation stone before travelling south, probably in the first two weeks of March.

I submitted your sketch to the Emperor and explained to him the concept of the project based on your explanations as the Emperor decided not to call you from Moscow at this time..."12

In February 1914, Nicholas II did give an audience to Shchusev and probably discussed with him further work on the project. Shchusev informed one of his correspondents on his meeting with the Emperor: "All went well at Tsarskoye, I spoke to the Emperor at the presence of G[rand] D[uchess] Maria Pavlovna."13 Only after the meeting was the composition of the Committee on the church construction finalized. The regiment commander Pavel Nikolayev and the Education Minister, General Glazov, were elected chairmen. Shesterikov, the Committee Secretary, notified Shchusev that new members had been invited to join the Committee: "On February 22, the Committee elected as members... N. Roerich, whom we had wanted to invite long ago, and Neradovsky, whom you had mentioned as the person whose experience would help advance our cause."14 Striving to bring his friends, colleagues and associates onto the Committee, Shchusev secured support for himself in respect of the many issues that would inevitably arise in the course of the church construction and decoration.

To participate in the organization of the foundation stone ceremony, Shchusev invited one of his best aides, A. Nechayev, who had started working with the architect in 1908 on the construction of a church at the Marfo-Mariinsky (Mary and Martha) Convent and later supervised the completion of the Holy Trinity Church in Pochaev and the memorial church at the Kulikovo Field. Nechayev recalled: "At the time I lived in Pavlovsk and a regiment colonel visited me and stated that A[lexei] V[iktorovich] wanted me to supervise the laying of the church's foundation stone. A 'baldachin' made after A.V.'s sketch, with four spiral gold-painted legs, arrived from Moscow."15 A memorial plate and an icon of Our Lady were also ordered for the ceremony - the latter, probably, to complement an icon from the old church, with the images of SS. Zosima and Sabbatius of Solovki. A sketch by Shchusev that may be associated with the icon survives: it depicts Our Lady of Tenderness and among the praying saints, St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow; St. Nicholas, the Miracle-worker; and the Apostles, SS. Peter and Paul. curiously, St. Nicholas of Myra, the Emperor's patron saint, was added to the list of saints to be depicted under the initial order (this may be explained by the emperor's active involvement in the church construction project). The correspondence relating to the icon of Our lady mentions the amount paid to the icon-painter - 800 rubles - and his surname, Grigoryev. From the details available in the documents it may be assumed that the artist in question was Boris Grigoryev, who at the time was staying in Russia between his two trips to France. In addition, over 30 icons dated from the 16th and 17th centuries were purchased for the new church's five-tiered iconostasis from the Chirikov brothers in Moscow.16 The old wooden church temporarily housed 19 of these works.

The foundation stone ceremony was set for March 11 1914, and on March 5 the Committee Secretary wrote to Shchusev: "We received the icon, it's very good and for sure, it can be used in the new church. The budget estimate, prepared by Mishukov,17 which you had sent, of course, was approved but I did not notify Mishukov separately as I believed that you would give him comprehensive instructions regarding the text for the memorial plate, as well as other items to be used for the foundation stone ceremony. As you requested, in the telegram we sent the final lines of the text to be inscribed on the plate. Hereto attached is the complete text which I wrote based on the sample that you sent. Where I was not sure about the correct spelling and meaning in Slavonic, I wrote in pencil. Tomorrow, on Thursday, the Emperor will see the commander - I think, to enquire into details. So, it may be that the Empress with daughters and heir, as well as G[rand] D[uchess] Maria Pavlovna will join the Emperor at the ceremony. If the need to add new names to the text arises, I will contact you immediately and you will do whatever possible."18

The "Tsarskoselsky Affairs" newspaper19 provided a very brief account of the ceremony. The memoirs of eyewitnesses, like Pantyukhov and Nechayev, appear much more interesting: "The atmosphere was reminiscent of a family celebration. Near the site where the church's foundation stone was to be laid, a podium was built, two to three meters in height, with places for ladies - relatives of the regiment officers... The Emperor, the Empress, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, the Heir and his sisters stood below, at the site of the ceremony. As clearly seen from my photograph, Father Veselovsky and all the parish clergy wore robes with our regiment's embroidery - Opuntia leaves. We all 'hoped' to see our new church near the Malinovsky residence soon."20; "All the military units lined up along the route travelled by the Royal Family were taught (probably, by special 'choirmasters') to 'musically' express their enthusiasm by shouting 'Hurrah!' Those cries rose and fell steadily along the entire route."21

However, such hopes would soon be dashed: less than five months after the ceremony, on August 1 1914, Russia entered World War One and the construction works were suspended. The walls that had already been built were covered with wood to protect them from the autumn rains. His Majesty's 1st Rifle Regiment went into conflict and took part in fierce battles. The 1917 Revolution put an end to Shchusev's architectural concept and virtually erased the story of the St. Alexius church project from history. Roerich was abroad at the time and therefore had to abandon all hopes of decorating the church and complete another of Shchusev's orders, the panel painting for the Kazan Railway Station. In the 1920s, Soviet troops settled in the former regiment's barracks and in 1923, the old church of SS. Zosima and Sabbatius of Solovki was demolished.

Today nobody knows how far the construction of the stone church had advanced, or when whatever had been built was demolished. However, construction would likely have continued through 1915 and 1916, although slowly. Shchusev communicated with the regiment that was fighting at the front and received an additional order for a portable triptych icon. Furthermore, in late September 1915, the 6th construction committee of Tsarskoye Selo invited the architect to compete for the design of a barracks for the Rifle Artillery Battalion of the Imperial Guard. The construction works were to start in spring 1916. Despite the lack of information on this project, the fact that such an offer was made to Shchusev proves that his ties with Tsarskoye Selo continued during wartime.

An elaborate stone-carving work designed by Shchusev to decorate the lower floor of the church also confirms the fact that this floor had indeed been completed. Among the architect's surviving works there are sketches for three relief roundels, dated 1914, with bust-length portraits of St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow; St. Nicholas, the Miracle-worker; and St. Mikhail Malein. The developed view of this scheme design shows the roundels' places on the side-chapels' corner pilaster-strips, 12 on each one - the same concept was implemented in the architect's earlier project, the Church of the All-Merciful Saviour at Natalyevka (1909?-1913). Among the saints, St. Mikhail Malein, the patron saint of the first Tsar of the Romanov House, was definitely visible. No doubt Shchusev deliberately added the image to his assembly of saints: it may be suggested that praising the Royal house, and particularly the regiment's sovereign patrons and main contributors to the construction project, was the idea behind the roundels' symbolism. Likewise, when designing the holy Trinity church in cuhurestii (1912?-1917), the architect used murals, commissioned from Natalia Goncharova, to express symbolically the heavenly protection bestowed on the client's family.22

In August 1915, the Society of Architects and Artists asked Shchusev to publish sketches of the St. Alexius church in their weekly magazine,23 which indicates that the project had gained a certain reputation in professional circles. however, for whatever reasons, Shchusev preferred to publish other works. If the architect had accepted the Society's offer, the design of the church at Tsarskoye Selo, even if only on paper, would today be numbered among his best pre-revolutionary works. undoubtedly, for Shchusev the project was of paramount importance, not just because it was an order of the highest level and the Emperor personally supported it, but because the church at Tsarskoye Selo, unlike the architect's other projects scattered across the Russian empire, would be built at its very centre, becoming a landmark of the area thanks to its author's vision and perseverance. This major work embodied the architect's best experience and concepts as implemented in his earlier projects, featuring the New Russian style. Previously, Shchusev had already drawn inspiration from the architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal (mostly when working on the details and decorative elements of his buildings), but only the Tsarskoye Selo project made it possible to conduct thorough research into the potential and techniques of that particular architectural school. In fact, the St. Alexius church preceded Shchusev's competitive design for the holy Trinity cathedral in Petrograd (1914-1915), a project that also never reached reality. even so, it embodied many features of the church at Tsarskoye Selo: the architectural solutions for the walls and the bell tower, and the dome's asymmetry relative to the building's transverse axis. Therefore, when we speak of Shchusev as a church architect, the significance of this "unknown" project should not be underestimated. A series of photographs survive, dated 1914-1915, which show Shchusev in his workshop, surrounded by his works, among which is a design of the St. Alexius church at Tsarskoye Selo.

  1. Russian State Historical Archive.
  2. With reference to Oleg Pantyukhov's memoirs, the modern researcher M. Meschaninov credits Shchusev with the St. Alexius Church project only with hesitation: "Regarding Shchusev's authorship, no evidence could be found in the archives to prove it and no design drawings of the church could be found either." (Quoted from: Meshchaninov, M., "Churches of Tsarskoye Selo, Pavlovsk and Their Neighbourhood: A Quick Reference Historical Handbook". St. Petersburg., 2007, pp. 115).
  3. Oleg Pantyukhov (1882-1973), a Russian officer, World War One hero, one of the founders of the Scout Movement in Russia. He served in His Majesty's 1st Rifle Regiment. In June-July 1914, he was temporarily charged with the duties of filing clerk for the Committee on the Construction of the St. Alexius Church at Tsarskoye Selo and was in correspondence with Alexei Shchusev. After the 1917 revolution, he left Moscow; in 1920, Pantyukhov emigrated with his family, first to Turkey, and then to the United States.
  4. Pantyukhov, Oleg. "On Days Past. The Pantyukhovs' Chronicle". Frankfurt-am-Main, 1969, p. 222.
  5. Nicholas Roerich's telegram to Alexei Shchusev, dated May 6 1913 // Private collection. First publication.
  6. Pavel Timofeevich Nikolayev (1862-1916) participated in the Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905 and in World War One. In 1907-1910 Nikolayev was the commander of the 1st Rifle Battalion of the Imperial Guard (from 1910, the 1st Rifle Regiment of the Imperial Guard). In 1908 he reached the rank of Major General, and in 1915 Lieutenant General.
  7. Alexei Shchusev's letter to Nicholas Roerich, dated June 3 1913 // Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. File 44. Item 1530. Sheet 1.
  8. Quoted from: Nechayev, A.M. "The Architect's Memoirs on the Work with A.V. Shchusev and V.A. Schuko in 1908-1925"; 1957 // Russian State Archive of Literature and Art. File 2465. Inv. 1. # 835. P 54. First publication.
  9. Alexei Shchusev's letter to Nicholas Roerich, dated January 4 1914 // Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. File 44. Item 1525. Sheet 1. First publication.
  10. Putyatin, Mikhail Sergeievich (1861-1938), Prince, Court Major General. From 1911 he headed the Court Administration at Tsarskoye Selo, and from 1913 edited "The Illuminated Chronicles of the Romanovs", working together with Nicholas Roerich. Like both Roerich and Shchusev, Putyatin was one of the founder-members of "The Society for the Revival of Arts in Russia" (1915-1917).
  11. Mikhail Putyatin's letter to Yevgeny Volkov, dated January 16 1914 // The Russian State Archive of Literature and Art. File 487. Inv. 6. Rec. 2934. Sheet 20.
  12. Pavel Nikolayev's letter to Alexei Shchusev, dated January 30 1914 // Private collection. First publication.
  13. Alexei Shchusev's letter to Fyodor Berenshtam, undated (early February 1914?) // The Russian State Archive of Literature and Art. File. 789. Inv. 13. Rec. 246. Sheets 25-25 rev. First publication.
  14. Shesterikov's letter to Alexei Shchusev, dated March 5 1914 // Private collection. First publication.
  15. Nechayev, A.M. "The Architect's Memoirs on the Work with A.V. Shchusev and V.A. Schuko in 1908-1925"; 1957 // The Russian State Archive of Literature and Art. File 2465. Inv. 1. # 835. P 54. First publication.
  16. Mikhail Osipovich Chirikov and Grigory Osipovich Chirikov - art restorers and icon painters, owners of an art, icon-painting and iconostasis workshop in Moscow. Grigory Chirikov (1882-1936?) was the leading restorer of ancient icons and an expert of the Imperial Archaeological Committee (1910-1917). From 1918 he was a member of the Committee on the Preservation and Recovery of Ancient Art Monuments. In 1918, G. Chirikov participated in the recovery of Andrei Rublev's icon, "The Holy Trinity", and in 1919 he restored the icon "Our Lady of Vladimir". In 1913, following Roerich's sketches, he painted murals in the St. Anastasia Chapel at Pskov, built to Shchusev's project. The architect invited G. Chirikov to decorate churches on several occasions.
  17. Fyodor Yakovlevich Mishukov (18811966), an artist-jeweller, was one of the leading restorers and specialists in applied and decorative arts. Shchusev invited him to work on such important projects as the Pokrovsky Church at the Marfo-Mariinsky (Mary and Martha) Convent in Moscow, St. Basil's Church at Ovruch, the Church of the All-Merciful Saviour at Natalyevka, the Kazan Railway Station, and the Moscow Hotel.
  18. Shesterikov's letter to Alexei Shchusev, dated March 5 1914 // Private collection. First publication.
  19. "Tsar- skoselsky Affairs". 1914. No. 11. March 14. P 3.
  20. Pantyukhov, Oleg. "On Days Past. The Pantyukhovs' Chronicle". Frankfurt-am-Main, 1969, p. 223.
  21. Nechayev, A.M. "The Architect's Memoirs on the Work with A.V. Shchusev and V.A. Schuko in 1908-1925"; 1957 // The Russian State Archive of Literature and Art. File 2465. Inv. 1. # 835. P 54. First publication.
  22. For details see: Koluzakov, S. "The Holy Trinity Church in Cuhureshtii Designed by Alexei Shchusev, and Natalia Goncharova's Sketches for the Church's Murals" // The "Tretyakov Gallery" Magazine. 2014, #1 (42); pp. 56-71.
  23. Letter to Alexei Shchusev from the editors of "Architecture and Art Weekly", dated August 3 1915 // Private collection.

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Illustrations

Alexei Shchusev in the design studio of the Kazan Railway Station. 1914–1915
Alexei Shchusev in the design studio of the Kazan Railway Station. 1914-1915
. Private collection. First publication
Telegram from Nicholas Roerich to Alexei Shchusev. May 6 1913
Telegram from Nicholas Roerich to Alexei Shchusev. May 6 1913
Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Sketch of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Initial version. Façade, draft. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Sketch of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Initial version. Façade, draft. 1913
Lead pencil, watercolour, gold paint on paper. 16.1 × 14.1 cm . Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Sketches of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Variants of the west façade. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Sketches of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Variants of the west façade. 1913
Lead pencil, watercolour, gold paint on tracing paper. 30 × 50 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Sketches of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Variants of the west façade. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Sketches of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Variants of the west façade. 1913
Lead pencil, watercolour, gold paint on tracing paper. 18.9 x 19.6; 11.8 x 9.1 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Sketch of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Perspective view. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Sketch of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Perspective view. 1913
Lead pencil, watercolour, gold paint on transparent paper. 15.7 × 16.6 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. South and west façades, cross section with indicated iconostasis, draft. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. South and west façades, cross section with indicated iconostasis, draft. 1913
Ink on transparent paper. 36 x 51.7 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. West façade, draft. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. West façade, draft. 1913
Detail. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Elevation view along Pavlovsk Road, scheme plan. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Elevation view along Pavlovsk Road, scheme plan. 1913
Lead pencil, ink on transparent paper. 25.3 x 68 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Master plan and perspective view indicating the new barracks of the regiment. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Master plan and perspective view indicating the new barracks of the regiment. 1913
Pink indicates the permanent structures existing at the time. Lead pencil, ink, watercolour, white paint, gold paint on transparent paper. 36.1 × 58.5 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Perspective view. 1913
Alexei Shchusev. Draft design of the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. Perspective view. 1913
Photograph illuminated by the author. Watercolour, gold paint on photo paper. 39 x 30 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Sketch of ciborium (baldachin) for the foundation stone ceremony in Tsarskoye Selo for the Church of St. Alexius. 1914
Alexei Shchusev. Sketch of ciborium (baldachin) for the foundation stone ceremony in Tsarskoye Selo for the Church of St. Alexius. 1914
Lead pencil, watercolour, golden paint on transparent paper. 19.8 × 17.9 cm. Private collection. First publication/div>
Alexei Shchusev. Sketch of the icon 'Our Lady of Tenderness with the Praying Saints, St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow; St. Nicholas, the Miracleworker; and the Apostles, SS. Peter and Paul.' 1914
Alexei Shchusev. Sketch of the icon "Our Lady of Tenderness with the Praying Saints, St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow; St. Nicholas, the Miracleworker; and the Apostles, SS. Peter and Paul.” 1914
Charcoal, watercolour, gold paint, paper mounted on cardboard. 37 × 32 cm. Private collection. First publication
Laying of the foundation stone ceremony for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. March 11 1914
Laying of the foundation stone ceremony for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. March 11 1914
Bottom, in the centre: Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna. Photograph. Private collection
Alexei Shchusev. St. Nicholas the Miracle-worker. Sketch of stone carving for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. 1914
Alexei Shchusev. St. Nicholas the Miracle-worker. Sketch of stone carving for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. 1914
Lead pencil on paper. 68.4 × 45.3 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow. Sketch of stone carving for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. 1914
Alexei Shchusev. St. Alexius, the Metropolitan of Moscow. Sketch of stone carving for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. 1914
Charcoal, lead pencil on cardboard. 42.7 × 31 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. St. Nicholas the Miracle-worker. Sketch of stone carving for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. 1914
Alexei Shchusev. St. Nicholas, the Miracle-worker. Sketch of stone carving for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. 1914
Charcoal, lead pencil on cardboard. 60 × 46.6 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. St. Mikhail Malein. Sketch of stone carving for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. 1914
Alexei Shchusev. St. Mikhail Malein. Sketch of stone carving for the Church of St. Alexius in Tsarskoye Selo. 1914
Charcoal, lead pencil on cardboard. 48 × 39 cm. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev in the design studio of the Kazan Railway Station. 1914–1915
Alexei Shchusev in the design studio of the Kazan Railway Station. 1914-1915
Photograph. Private collection. First publication
Alexei Shchusev. Competition design for the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Petrograd. South façade. 1915
Alexei Shchusev. Competition design for the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Petrograd. South façade. 1915
Pencil, watercolour, golden paint on paper 54 x 74 cm. Private collection. First publication
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