Pavel Tretyakov and Anton Rubinstein - Fellow Devotees to the Arts

Yelena Terkel

Magazine issue: 
#3 2012 (36)

Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov and Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein shared a selfless devotion to art. Tretyakov was a great collector and the founder of the largest museum of Russian painting, Rubinstein a great composer and virtuoso pianist and conductor. Their paths crossed early in their lives, and their respect for one another only grew over the years.

According to family legend, the Tretyakov brothers Pavel and Sergei met Anton and Nikolai Rubinstein in early childhood. In the early 1830s the Rubinsteins came to Moscow, first settling near the Yauza River and later in the "Zamoskvorechie" (Beyond the Moscow River) neighbourhood. Anton Rubinstein asked his mother about his childhood in a letter: "When did I become lost in the streets of Moscow, I believe, in Krymsky Brod in the Tartar neighbourhood? We then lived for a while on Pyatnitskaya street, before moving to Ordynka."1 Not far from Krymsky Brod, in the Golutvinskaya settlement, stood the house of the Tretyakovs, where Pavel was born in 1832, and Sergei two years later. The Rubinstein brothers and the Tretyakov brothers were nearly of the same age, so there was nothing surprising in the fact that the children spent much time together. According to the memoir of Pavel Tretyakov's elder daughter Vera, "Pavel Mikhailovich almost never spoke about his childhood... He loved to recall how he and his brother Seryezha went to bathhouses in Babiy Gorodok near the Moscow River, together with Anton and Nikolai Rubinstein, whose father owned a plant producing pencils located nearby. 'Nikolai Grigorievich was a great mischief-maker,' Pavel Mikhailovich would add with a sweet, playful smile..."2 Interestingly, Anton Rubinstein, recalling his early years, noted, " I was the most awful, horrendous mischief-maker"3. But while both of the Rubinstein brothers were sprightly and sharp boys, among the Tretyakov children these qualities were displayed only by Sergei; the elder brother Pavel was a solid person since his early childhood. It was Sergei Tretyakov who would later become Nikolai Rubinstein's close friend for many years.

Vera Ziloti, Pavel Tretyakov's daughter, wrote in her reminiscences: "Strangely — although in fact there is nothing strange, all is natural — this companionship of infants later sprouted into a wonderful friendly understanding between these four individuals, who were throughout their lives entirely dedicated to art, each in his particular domain; Pavel Mikhailovich was mostly devoted to the genius of the Rubinstein brothers, and Sergei Mikhailovich, moreover, remained their intimate friend until his dying day"4.

Neither Anton Rubinstein nor Pavel Tretyakov liked to reminisce about their respective childhoods. The parents of both families used a firm hand with their children. From an early age Pavel ran errands in his father's store, and Anton since infancy was taught music, with a view to moulding him into a concert performer. In both families hard work was at the core of their upbringing, and the boys were used to relentless toil from early in their lives. Pavel Tretyakov's daughter Alexandra wrote: "Mikhail Zakharovich's sons worked at the store and served as 'errand boys'... They helped at the store, ran errands and emptied the slops."5 Anton Rubinstein did not have to take care of slops but, following his mother's wishes, spent a great deal of time at the piano under her vigilant eyes. According to the account of a witness of these lessons M. Rosenberg, "His mother was very strict with him, taught him and gave him a smack every now and then, quite a painful smack — she would hit him with a ruler on any limb that she could reach. He was not capricious. When he did not do his home assignment properly or struck a wrong note, she would immediately set him right in her own way."6 Anton Rubinstein himself recalled later: "In that age strictness was still in fashion — sticks and slaps on the face, a far cry from what is acceptable today. People nowadays have no idea about the way things were back then."7

In the Rubinstein family musical education was a matter of course, as Anton wrote later: "In our home we hade one musical instrument — the piano. When I was six, my mother began teaching me music, as she did with my brothers. "8 Pavel Tretyakov did not receive a regular musical education, and talked about that fact with regret: "If you don't know the basics of music, how can you talk about music education?"9 Yet, the mother of Pavel and Sergei, according to Alexandra Botkina's memoir, "played the piano rather nicely. I remember my astonishment: I was seven, and in the Konshins' summer cottage, in Kuntsevo, at a family celebration grandmother Alexandra Danilovna was asked to play the piano. She sat and played something. Grandma playing! When we visited her, I never saw her at the piano."10 The Tretyakovs were fond of music and theatre, and Pavel and Sergei attended opera performances regularly.

Music was a constant presence in the life of the Rubinsteins and the Tretyakovs. Pavel Tretyakov's elder daughter Vera recalled that to some extent her father owed his marriage to Vera Mamontova to music-related circumstances. Vera described the story of her parents' acquaintance: "It happened in the spring of 1865... Vera Nikolaevna, like her sister Zinaida Nikolaevna, had a reputation in Moscow as an excellent pianist and educated musician. The sisters loved to perform chamber music from time to time. Alexander Stepanovich [Kaminsky] organized a music soiree in his home, asking Vera Nikolaevna to play whatever she liked... She had 'at hand' (as Vera Nikolaevna would often say) then a Hummel septet and a Beethoven trio (I don't remember which one). Pavel Mikhailovich was one of the guests. He hid in a corner and listened raptly to the music, which he loved very much. When Vera Nikolaevna finished the second piece, Johann Hummel's septet, Pavel Mikhailovich asked Alexander Stepanovich to introduce him to the 'marvellous lady pianist' and, bowing first, told her with embarrassment: 'Very nice, my good lady, very nice'. Vera was 21 and Pavel, 33. He began to pay regular visits to Yelizaveta Ivanovna, whom he 'respected' all through his life for her kind heart and community activities; he often asked Vera Nikolaevna to play something for him, and proposed to her early next summer. On August 22 1865 they were married..."11

The marriage between Pavel Tretyakov and Vera Mamontova proved very happy. Music was to be heard constantly in their home. The acquaintance with the Rubinsteins continued and became more intimate thanks to Vera, a genuine admirer of both brothers' talents. Nikolai Rubinstein, who lived in Moscow and was a friend of Sergei Tretyakov, had known the Mamontov sisters, Vera and Zina, since early childhood. Zinaida married Vasily Yakunchikov, who, together with Nikolai Rubinstein and Sergei Tretyakov, actively participated in the organization of the Moscow branch of the Russian Music Society and the establishment of the Moscow Conservatory. Anton Rubinstein wrote in his memoir: "You're asking about Nikolai Grigorievich? Ultimately, I know very little about his activities — why don't you ask Tretyakov?..."12 Regrettably, Sergei Tretyakov never wrote a memoir, and information about his friendship with Nikolai Rubinstein is fragmentary.

Pavel's elder daughter Vera wrote about the times when the Moscow Conservatory was established and the role played by Sergei Tretyakov and Vasily Yakunchikov in this undertaking: "Nikolai Grigorievich, admired in Moscow, enlisted the support of a sufficient number of individuals who made a one-off contribution of 1,000 rubles in exchange for honorary membership. One of the first contributors was Prince Nikolai Petrovich Trubetskoi, who became the chairman of the Moscow chapter of the Imperial Russian Music Society (IRMO)13. He was joined by Vasily Ivanovich Yakunchikov and Sergei Mikhailovich Tretyakov. Those who contributed 100 rubles every year became full members and had an armchair seat reserved for them at all evening performances of symphonic music, quartets and students recitals at the Conservatory. After marrying Zinaida Nikolaevna Mamontova, Vasily Ivanovich [Yakunchikov] obtained full membership both for [her and her sister Vera]. Both became full members of the Society. Pavel Mikhailovich too became a full member, so our parents attended every concert at the IRMO."14

Vera Tretyakova's journal has entries about visits to these concerts. On November 6 1882 she listened to Anton Rubinstein's Symphony No. 2 "Ocean" — at that concert, the part called " Lento assai", added by the composer after the symphony was finished, was performed for the first time. Vera wrote: "All seven parts of the 'Ocean' were a most engrossing experience. The second part of 'Lento assai' moved me to tears, I started crying — so vividly, so sharply did I feel the intensity of the storm and all the intensity of the suffering of the voyagers."15

The Tretyakovs' elder daughter Vera recalled how her father and mother visited Anton Rubinstein's performances in 1880: "In the spring of 1880 our parents took me and Sasha to both concerts of Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein. It was the first time that we heard him and the first time that we visited the big hall of the Noblemen's Assembly; we were seated in the first rows. How many portraits of Anton Grigorievich and Nikolai Grigorievich we'd seen since our childhood! How much praise for Anton Grigorievich's performance we'd heard from our parents! To see him and to hear him was so exciting! And when Anton Grigorievich walked out on the stage to a long round of applause, his vigorous frame with a head like Beethoven astonished us, and we, all the young people there, felt at once that we saw a giant, a genius. .He began playing Georg Handel's d-moll variations, Mozart's c-moll fantasias and then Beethoven's C-dur sonata (the Waldstein sonata). We, the young people (I have no qualms about writing 'we'), were stunned, enthralled, moved; yes, you cannot describe those feelings, you have to feel them! Mama, who knew Anton Grigorievich, took us to his dressing room. It was the first time that I felt I met with the greatest of performers: there was something titanic and divine about him, and also something so human, deep, tender — and irresistibly appealing. To this day I remember every detail of his performance of all those composers' pieces! In 1882 we enjoyed his playing again on several occasions. In the mid- 1880s he gave a series of performances called the Historical Concerts in Moscow, St. Petersburg and abroad. It was the greatest event in Moscow's music life..."16

The Tretyakovs not only knew and loved the Rubinstein brothers, but literally worshipped Anton Rubinstein's talent. Travelling to St. Petersburg on business, Pavel Tretyakov never missed a chance to listen to his compositions. In February 1875 he even postponed his journey home so that he could hear the composer's new opus. "Only the 'Demon' is holding me here, I'll hear it today and leave tomorrow, please send a carriage to fetch me on Saturday,"17 he wrote to his wife. In February 1880 Pavel Tretyakov sent news from St. Petersburg: "I've heard Rubinstein's opera '[The Merchant] Kalashnikov' (on the opening night — Rubinstein himself conducted). The 'Kalashnikov', I believe, is his best opera."18 A couple of days later Tretyakov wrote that he had already attended twice the opera performance that caught his fancy, and besides: "Yesterday I dined at my brother's, together with Anton and Nikolai Rubinstein, Auer and Grigorovich. Anton Grigorievich is the nicest person."19

An intimate friend of Nikolai Rubinstein, Sergei Tretyakov was active in the cultural life of Moscow. In the late 1870s he was the mayor of Moscow and did much for the city's development. His house on Prechistensky Boulevard was one of the hubs of cultural activities in Moscow. According to the memoirs of Alexandra Botkina, Pavel Tretyakov's daughter, "Pavel Mikhailovich and Vera Nikolaevna would meet with Anton Rubinstein at Sergei Mikhailovich's home, which he visited often as a good friend, and also at music soirees, where he played for the party host's family and friends. I attended one such soiree. He played like a lion but looked miserable because his sight was impaired. The Tretyakovs met with Nikolai Grigorievich in Sergei Mikhailovich's house, as well as at the Music Society and the Alexeevs' house."20

Of the two Rubinstein brothers Nikolai, who spent most of his life in Moscow, had the closest ties to the Tretyakovs; Vera Nikolaevna had known him since their youth. Like all other members of the family, her children revered the Rubinsteins. The elder daughter Vera reminisced about her acquaintance with the celebrated musician: "Beginning from 1872 Mama on Sunday afternoons would sometimes take me to the Quartet Concerts at the Small Hall of the Noblemen's Assembly. And the next year she would take Sasha along with me when 'Nikolai Grigorievich' performed. I cannot forget the impression made on me when Nikolai Grigorievich, the man who had just exchanged greetings with my Mama and me, suddenly walked up to the stage, played a-minor and d-minor triads, and the sounds of a quartet being put in tune were heard from the open door in the performers' dressing room.  Once, before a concert, when me, Sasha and Mama were standing by a window, Nikolai Grigorievich approached and greeted us and, looking at my mother very affectionately, said: 'Yes, previously there were two girls: Zina and Vera; and now there are two girls, Vera and Sasha'."21

Pavel Tretyakov too never missed a chance to attend concerts in which Nikolai Rubinstein performed. Pavel admiringly talked about the historical concerts of Russian music at the international exhibition in Paris which he attended in the autumn of 1878. On September 17 he wrote to his wife: "Friday I attended a Russian concert (the fourth one at the wish of the audience, and with proceeds to benefit workers). I felt most gratified listening, for the first time, to Russian music in the City of Light. The performance was perfect (exc[ept] Belokha). Nik[olai] Gr[igorievich] played wonderfully, and he was applauded not only by the audience but by the members of the orchestra as well, every time he appeared on or left the stage. But even more moved, to the point of weeping, I felt when I saw that this nice hall belonged to a free nation, that everyone was the master here and that there was not a single livery in the first rows of seats."22

Everyone in the Tretyakov family genuinely loved Nikolai Rubinstein; Vera Nikolaevna by force of habit treated him without ceremony. In one of the entries in her 1880 diary she described a banquet to which Nikolai Rubinstein invited her and Pavel: "Nikolai Gr[igorievich] Rubinstein talked with me gently; seated next to me at the dinner — he recalled my family, the Mamontovs, as they had been over 20 years ago. He knew us, the sisters Zina and Vera, and said that we were nice girls. By the way, he told me that he wanted to write in his will that after his death, as a tribute to him, Robert Schumann's 'Requiem' should be played and that on the day of his death a dinner should be given, attended by all people who knew him, who would say, holding a glass of champagne: what a pity that Nik[olai] Gr[igorievich] is not with us! ...I told Nik[olai] Gr[igorievich] that I too would write into my will the request to perform the 'Requiem' in my memory after I die, in case he survives me." 23

Vera Tretyakova took Nikolai Rubinstein's words lightly enough. Who could have known that Nikolai Rubinstein was to live less than a year and that his thoughts about death were haunting him not without reason? Early in 1881 Sergei Tretyakov and his wife Yelena travelled to Paris and persuaded Nikolai to accompany them to take a course of treatment abroad. But the musician was too ill by then, and soon after arriving at Paris he was laid low by sickness. Sergei and his wife ministered to him day and night. Their niece Vera described in her memoir Nikolai's passing: "On March 11 in the morning he was especially cheerful and even began dreaming about returning to Moscow soon. Then he expressed a wish for a respite. He put his hand on Yelena's and fell asleep. Yelena, anxious not to disturb the sick man, kept her hand in his and sat very quietly for a very long time. The doctor knocked and walked in; he came up to the patient, stooped to him, listened to his breath, looked up with an expression of surprise and said: ' He is no longer with us'. Yelena Andreevna was astonished how imperceptibly this silent guest, death, had crept up. Late in March, in the twilight of an evening in spring, Nikolai's body was brought from abroad, to be placed in a church affiliated with Moscow University, at the crossroad of Bolshaya Nikitskaya and Mokhovaya streets. The next evening Mama took both of us to the funeral service. The huge staircase was adorned with tropical plants, and there were many laurel wreaths. The coffin was smothered in flowers. We stayed there for a long time after the service. In the stillness of the church we could hear the weeping of Nikolai Grigorievich's students as they knelt at the coffin, half-hidden from view behind the flowers."24 The students included Pavel Tretyakov's future son-in-law — Alexander Ilyich Ziloti, who, after Nikolai Rubinstein's death, became a student of his brother Anton.

Anton Rubinstein's talent was genuinely adored by the Tretyakovs, who knew and highly appreciated the musician's work. Pavel and Vera Nikolaevna tried to visit each of the musician's performances, and their growing children admired him as much as their parents. Their elder daughter, Vera, was an earnest student of music, loving it and showing considerable promise. She was very eager for a good music education, and received encouragement from Pyotr Tchaikovsky. Later she recalled: "Pyotr Ilyich set about persuading my parents to enrol me at the conservatory of music, in the class of music theory. Father, of course, was opposed to it since he was against co-education. I was very disappointed when I was held back from studying at the Conservatory."25 By then, there were two accomplished female pianists in Pavel Tretyakov's family — the mother and daughter, both named Vera, both admirers of Anton Rubinstein. The daughter soon married Alexander Ziloti, a student of the Rubinstein brothers.

Pavel Tretyakov also greatly appreciated Anton Rubinstein's art and community work, and deemed it necessary to add a portrait of the great musician to his picture gallery. His daughter Alexandra wrote: "Pavel Mikhailovich had begun to think seriously about collecting portraits of persons of importance in artistic and academic circles from 1869-1870. Before that portraits were bought mostly on account of the authorship of the great artists who interested him. Now Pavel Mikhailovich was selecting and commissioning portraits of individuals who interested him."26 In 1870 Vasily Perov on Pavel Tretyakov's commission painted a portrait of Nikolai Rubinstein27. Later the picture became a part of Sergei Tretyakov's collection.

Pavel Tretyakov decided to commission Anton Rubinstein's portrait from Ivan Kramskoi. In early 1877 the final decision was taken, but Kramskoi was overwhelmed with other work. Anxious that the artist might not be able to complete successfully all of his projects, Tretyakov wrote to him on March 21: "It goes without saying that I would be extremely gratified if you complete all the portraits you've promised to me, but I cannot imagine how you can pull it off. Apart from the royal portraits, you have in the works [the images of] [Nikolai] Nekrasov, [Mikhail] Saltykov[-Shchedrin], [Alexei] Koltsov, Samarin, and considering that you also have to finish the Aksakov, the Tolstoy and the Rubinstein before you tackle the main work, the undertaking seems barely feasible." 28

Kramskoi at that time was preparing to begin a composition titled "Roars of Laughter" ("Rejoice, the King of Judea"), but he was also eager to finish all the portraits he had promised to Tretyakov. Tretyakov loathed haste and understood that it would be difficult for an artist to focus his energies on many different projects at once. Tretyakov insisted in his letter of May 7: "I wouldn't object at all if you have accomplished Anton Rubinstein's portrait, but since I care about your serious work (it must be serious!), and now is the best time for it, while Rubinstein is not so prominent a personality that his portrait would need to be accomplished before everything else, and besides, I would wish you to put as much loving care as possible into the pictures of Aksakov and Nekrasov (the last one, I mean the accessories, is going to require more efforts than would seem at a first glance), so it appears to me that the Rubinstein and the Koltsov should be definitely put on hold until you have a free slot in the schedule."29

Eventually Kramskoi agreed with his client's arguments and informed him in a reply: " I thank you for your solicitude about me and the time allocated for my piece; I will heed your advice regarding the Koltsov and the Rubinstein..."30 Yet, in the summer of 1877 Kramskoi and Tretyakov resumed their heated discussion of the portrait in-the-making. The renewed focus was caused by the deterioration of the musician's health. Kramskoi wrote to Pavel Tretyakov: "I've seen Rubinstein and completely agree with Sergei Mikhailovich in that if the portrait is to be made, we have to hurry, otherwise he may lose his sight; one of his eyes is almost completely gone already; so I'm thinking about beginning the piece in those days when I visit with Yelizaveta Mikhailovna in Oranienbaum, and I believe that — who knows? — something will come out of it, because I plan to paint him when he works in his music room. This entirely agrees with what we've talked about."31

Pavel Mikhailovich agreed with the artist's arguments and consented to Kramskoi's portrait of Rubinstein, although in his heart he did not believe that Kramskoi would find time for yet another piece of work. On July 11 Tretyakov wrote to Kramskoi: "The only reason I wanted to put on hold the Rubinstein portrait was to give you more freedom, but since you make visits to Oranienbaum all the same, now seems to be the appropriate time for taking up the work lest you have to make visits to Peterhof in winter"32. Tretyakov's apprehension proved correct: "the Rubinstein's been laid aside," 33 the artist told him on August 13. Kramskoi finished the piece only in 1885-188734, but Tretyakov could not wait for so long.

Nikolai Rubinstein's sudden death in the spring of 1881 made Tretyakov hurry in his attempt to secure an image of his brother Anton for the collection. It was decided to commission the portrait from Ilya Repin. In October 1881 Tretyakov wrote to the artist: "Dear Ilya Yefimovich. Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein is now in Moscow and probably will stay in the city for about three more weeks; this is a chance, not to be missed, to execute his portrait. His portrait may prove to be even better than Pisemsky's — such a colourful personality for an artist to tackle, so you should take up this work. I wish for the same size as in the Pisemsky piece (this is the most convenient size). My brother Sergei Mikhailovich can arrange for his consent and the sittings; I'm writing to him today."35

It is not clear whether Pavel Tretyakov succeeded in kindling the artist's interest, or whether Sergei Mikhailovich proved more forceful on the matter, but work on the portrait progressed quickly. On October 31 Repin apprised Vladimir Stasov: "Now I'm painting the portrait of Anton Rubinstein for Pavel Tretyakov. He has an interesting lion-like head; it's a pity he's short on time and a bad sitter." 36 And already on November 2 Sergei Tretyakov wrote to his elder brother about his impressions from the painting, the process of working on the portrait, and the artist's plans. "Both I and Repin received your letters, and now it has been a week since the work on the portrait started. It took pains to persuade A.G. [Anton Grigorievich]... But today, when the image is almost ready, A.G. agreed to pose for Repin for yet another portrait, at a different angle — nearly half-face. I like very much the portrait in the works — both for the resemblance and the artistry, it is painted in the same style as the Pisemsky portrait."37

Repin struggled with the portrait, and he was not satisfied with his work, as Pavel learnt from Sergei: "Repin is unhappy with the pose and the countenance — he says both are more suitable for a minister, and he thinks that a nearly half-face image would be much more interesting"38. Already in early December the artist wrote to Stasov: "I made two images of Anton Rubinstein: face forward and half-face"39. Tretyakov chose the full-face image and bought it for the gallery. Both portraits were featured at the 10th exhibition of the "Peredvizhniki" (Wanderers) society in 1882. Later Repin decided to finish the portrait he had made — the one where Anton Rubinstein was featured in profile, conducting an orchestra invisible to viewers.

Stasov, who chanced upon the new version of the portrait in Repin's home, was delighted and told his brother about it in a letter on August 6 1887: "Here I'm walking into the dining-room and what do I see beside me on the wall? Rubinstein, but already transmogrified!! And how! Previously seated, now he's up, knee-length, behind a music-stand, his arm lifted, with a conductor's baton flung up in the air. Just marvellous!! The head is bearishly bowed, the wearied half-blind eyes under sagging heavy eye-lids look down on the score which they can barely see — it looks wonderful, just wonderful!"40 This favourable response to his attempt to re-work the image encouraged Repin to continue his work. The artist believed that he partly owed the success of the painting in the making to Stasov, and told him about it on August 10: "You quite astonished me then. Do you know why? You simply knocked me over. You (as usually) probably have no clue as to why. You knocked me over with the Rubinstein portrait. You know, this one too is going to be a smashing success. You are a man of impulse, and only those of your undertakings pan out which you start off and work on in such moments... This portrait in the works (when it's finished) is probably a chef d'aeuvre. It was as if beams of sunlight broke in from somewhere making the entire piece sparkle throughout. This is a magnificent spectacle. Everything in it is unbelievably precise. The way Rubin stands, the way he clumsily inclines his head towards the stand, how he looks at the score with his half-blind eyes, the swing of his arm. The spectacle, the spectacle, the spectacle, the magnificent truthful spectacle!!!"41 When it was finished, this portrait of Anton Rubinstein with a conductor's baton42 in his hand became the most famous and impressive painted image of the musician.

Later, in 1909, Repin would again paint a half-face image of Rubinstein, creating a third portrait43. This time Anton Rubinstein was depicted full-length, at a music-stand in the grand hall. The picture was finally re-worked in 1915, and in 1916 was exhibited at the 44th show of the "Peredvizhniki" society. Thus, the two last portraits came into existence due to Tretyakov's original 1881 commission. This was Pavel Tretyakov's accidental contribution to the perpetuation of the memory of the great musician whose art he admired so much. The idea of putting together a gallery of portraits of Russia's prominent cultural figures was met with enthusiasm by artists. Not without reason Nikolai Ge wrote to Tretyakov: "So hearing you voice the idea I've been nursing for long, I've envisioned its realisation on the greatest scale, and became overwhelmed by the desire to pool together all means. You have been collecting the portraits of the best Russian people for 20 years, and as a matter of course you intend to pass this collection on to society, which alone should possess it — I've been thinking all along that it is an artist's duty to commit to canvas images of cherished people, [our] contemporaries..."44 Thanks to Pavel Tretyakov the superb portraits of Anton and Nikolai Rubinstein now grace the collection of the Tretyakov Gallery.

  1. Barenboim, Lev. "Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein". Leningrad: 1957. P. 18.
  2. Ziloti, Vera. "In the Home of Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1998. P. 12.
  3. Anton Rubinstein. Autobiographical Stories. In: Barenboim, Lev. "Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein". Leningrad: 1957. P. 401.
  4. Ziloti, Vera. "In the Home of Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1998. P. 12.
  5. Botkina, Alexandra. "Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov in Life and Art". Moscow: 1993. P. 13.
  6. Quoted from: Barenboim, Lev. "Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein". Leningrad: 1957. P. 26.
  7. Anton Rubinstein. Autobiographical Stories. In: Barenboim, Lev. "Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein". Leningrad: 1957. P. 401.
  8. Quoted from: Barenboim, Lev. "Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein". Leningrad: 1957. P. 21.
  9. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 5975. Sheet 1 (reverse).
  10.  Botkina, Alexandra. "Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov in Life and Art". Moscow: 1993. P. 12.
  11. Ziloti, Vera. "In the Home of Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1998. P. 29.
  12. Anton Rubinstein. Autobiographical Stories. In: Barenboim, Lev. "Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein". Leningrad: 1957. P. 419.
  13. Imperial Russian Music Society
  14. Ziloti, Vera. "In the Home of Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1998. P. 54.
  15. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 5287. Sheet 72.
  16. Ziloti, Vera. "In the Home of Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1998. P. 89.
  17. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 5977. Sheet 1.
  18. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 5998. Sheet 1.
  19. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 5999. Sheet 1.
  20. Botkina, Alexandra. "Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov in Life and Art". Moscow: 1993. P. 214.
  21. Ziloti, Vera. "In the Home of Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1998. P. 54.
  22. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 5987. Sheet 1 (reverse).
  23. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 5288. Sheet 7.
  24. Ziloti, Vera. "In the Home of Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1998. P. 92.
  25. Ziloti, Vera. "In the Home of Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1998. P. 85.
  26. Botkina, Alexandra. "Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov in Life and Art". Moscow: 1993. P. 107.
  27. The portrait is held at the Tretyakov Gallery.
  28. "Ivan Kramskoi's Letters. Ivan Kramskoi and Pavel Tretyakov. 1869-1887". Moscow: 1953. P.186.
  29. "Ivan Kramskoi's Letters. Ivan Kramskoi and Pavel Tretyakov. 1869-1887". Moscow: 1953. Pp. 191192.
  30. "Letters of Painters to Pavel Tretyakov". Moscow: 1968. P. 301.
  31. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 1896. Sheets 1 (reverse) and 2.
  32. "Ivan Kramskoi's Letters. Ivan Kramskoi and Pavel Tretyakov. 1869-1887". Moscow: 1953. P. 196.
  33. "Letters of Painters to Pavel Tretyakov. 1870-1879". Moscow: 1968. P. 311.
  34. The portrait was bought by the St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music.
  35. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 103. Sheet 1.
  36. "Ilya Repin. Letters. Correspondence with Vladimir Stasov". Vol. 2. Moscow and Leningrad: 1949. P. 70.
  37. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 3658. Sheet 1.
  38. Department of Manuscripts, Tretyakov Gallery. Fund 1. Item 3658. Sheet 1.
  39. "Ilya Repin. Letters. Correspondence with Vladimir Stasov". Vol. 2. Moscow and Leningrad: 1949. P. 72.
  40. "Ilya Repin. Letters. Correspondence with Vladimir Stasov". Vol. 2 Moscow and Leningrad: 1949. P. 345.
  41. "Ilya Repin. Letters. Correspondence with Vladimir Stasov". Vol. 2. Moscow and Leningrad: 1949. Pp. 116-117.
  42. The portrait is held at the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg.
  43. The portrait is held at the Samara Art Museum.
  44. "Letters of Painters to Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov". 1870-1879. Moscow: 1968. P. 347.





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